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Determinants of purchasing intention for fashion luxury goods in the Italian market : a laddering approach Cesare Amatulli; Gianluigi Guido. Journal of fashion marketing and management. Check Google Scholar More access options. In libraries world-wide WorldCat. In German libraries KVK.

Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth-Century Italy

I need help. More details Report error. Extent: graph. Saved in favorites. Similar items by subject. While a somewhat slower drying time might have offered beneficial control of application in some of these instances, too slow a dry time could be problematic, especially if the Pressbrokat was applied to an object vertically. The fill was important as it solidified the form of the molded tin foil and provided a flat surface to anchor the tin to the intended support; the materials of the fill and their aging characteristics could have implications for preservation of the Pressbrokat and once identified, could be used to compare and potentially associate makers as more technical studies are undertaken.

Once the fill material had cured, the tin foil, reinforced by the fill mass, was lifted from the mold. The parallel lines incised in the mold produced raised lines of tin that mimicked metallic threads. Finally, paint was applied locally to imitate designs of cut velvet pile.


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Pressbrokat can be difficult to identify, due in part to misunderstandings of the processes and materials. Ornament using the same technique with molded tin and a fill mass but used for effects other than imitating textiles is still called Pressbrokat in Italy. The geographical origins of Pressbrokat are not known, but some of the earliest examples appear in panels dated around — from Norwich, Hamburg, Berlin, and Cologne. It is likely that specialized craftsmen, distinct from painters, produced Pressbrokat and disseminated the technique through migration and travel.

Examples of Pressbrokat in Italian works are rare; surviving examples are limited to northern regions of Italy. Certainly Italian artists incorporated relief effects into works of art, but tin-relief textiles were limited to the Italian north, mainly southern Tyrol but also Lombardy and the Veneto. Localized areas of Pressbrokat may also appear in other paintings from this workshop, but analyses are scant and inconclusive.

At the end of the fifteenth century and into the next century, in two Venetian provinces just south of the Alps, Belluno part of the Republic of Venice after and Friuli after , artists from Venice and Germany worked in close contact, and some workshops frequently incorporated applied brocade in their altarpieces.

Gold and silver brocades were alternated for decorative effect and were interspersed with painted non-brocaded textiles. Two figures, a female in The Departure of Helen and Her Entourage for Cythera and a male on The Abductio n of Helen from Cythera have Pressbrokat ornamented at the edges with dagging, the fashion of cutting edges into shaped forms. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy XRF confirmed the presence of tin throughout the Pressbrokat.

Gilding the Market: Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth-Century Italy

Complete corrosion of the tin metal foil into the tin oxide is estimated to take approximately years. Consequently, much of the Pressbrokat in the Abduction of Helen paintings had been extensively covered with restoration material. While restorations sometimes simply reinforced the original patterns, in severely damaged areas the entire design had been reworked.

The extensive metallic paint restoration precluded the analysis of any original applied glazing or toning on the top of the tin.


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  4. Using larger sheets of Pressbrokat was not only more time-efficient but also made it possible to display larger textile motifs with fewer potentially problematic seams. Examination with X-radiography clarified the original designs, now obscured with restoration material or otherwise hard to discern fig. Motifs include pinecones, thistles, twisting acanthus leaves, and flower buds figs. There are also curious stylized pomegranates with their usually upright crown-like calyx turned to face the viewer fig. These resemble pomegranates in paintings by the Venetian Michele Giambono active — as seen on the textile depicted in the background of his Madonna and Child , ca.

    Care was taken to continue the designs across the joins of individual sheets of Pressbrokat. Motifs are occasionally depicted in perspective, following the form of the body, and designs change direction at major folds in the garments, such as where the trains of the dresses drape on the floor. Given the use of molds in the manufacture of Pressbrokat , one might expect to see the same designs recurring, but the designs only rarely repeat from one garment to another: different figures wear slightly different textile designs.

    This loose approach appears very different from other examples of Pressbrokat imaged with X-radiography, where the lines were more deliberate and neatly applied.


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    The brocades were additionally textured with massed, half-rounded c-shaped marks, sometimes connected to each other in continuous loops. In contrast to the textured areas, the Pressbrokat includes smooth, flat areas intended to simulate fields of plain-cut velvet, such as the wide ogee-shaped borders around the large pomegranate forms fig. These areas are painted with blue copper-rich azurite or red mercury-rich vermillion opaque paint, indicated by XRF analyses, probably to imitate indigo and red lake dyes used with textiles.

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    In one instance, white paint was used to delineate forms on a gold brocade on the sleeves of a female figure in the Departure. The figure of the priest in the temple of Venus in the Abduction wears a red hat, a kamelaukion , textured to imitate varying piles of unbrocaded velvet. An array of methods was used to determine the composition of the orange-toned fill mass supporting the tin relief.

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR suggested that it is composed of a complex mixture of drying oil with lead soaps such as palmitate or stearate, and kaolin and resin est. Raman spectroscopy identified the red lead oxide called minium Pb 3 O 4. As a siccative, minium would have accelerated drying and added a warm red tone underneath the tin.

    Analyses using pyrolysis gas chromatography with mass spectrometry pyGCMS provided further confirmation of the presence of an aged drying oil, with the presence of dehydroabietic acid, and colophony rosin , suggesting the use of a pine-based ingredient, such as Venice turpentine, as a diluent.

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    Additionally, polarizing light microscopy PLM identified segmented bast fiber, possibly hemp or linen from shredded paper or textiles, perhaps added to bulk and strengthen the fill mass. Other studies have found fibers only occasionally in the fill mass for brocades, although they might be easy to overlook. The thickness of the fill mass varies extending over striated lines and flat areas; in one cross-section, it averages about 60 microns 0. In some areas of applied brocade in the Departure, the tin exhibits slight wrinkling over the fill mass.

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