Compare Investment Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. Related Terms Credit Card Encryption Credit card encryption is a security measure that is used to reduce thefts of credit card information. What is Cybersecurity? Cybersecurity refers to the measures taken to keep electronic information private, ranging from personal protection to complex government protection. PayPal Definition PayPal is an electronic commerce company that facilitates payments between parties through online funds transfers.
Encryption Encryption is a means of securing digital date using an algorithm and a key. Partner Links. Related Articles.
Credit Card PayPal Vs. Credit Card: Which Is Safer? In contrast, high-context societies, those of central and southern Europe, are less receptive, particularly because the Internet has to compete with traditional social networks. In Figure 1. The situation is substantially different regarding mobile commerce.
It is noted that 19 countries in the top 20 list are from the developing world. As will be seen in Chapter 10, mobile phones can be used to emulate contactless cards used for transportation and access control. This explains why payment applications using mobile phones mobile money have been deployed in many developing countries to offer financial services to the unbanked, even though M-PESA in Kenya remains the lightning rod for mobile payment applications.
In the developed world, many urban areas with high commuter traffic presents a great market potential for mobile payments with contactless chip cards at vending machines or parking kiosks. Smartphones offer many additional features for mobile commerce. This has security implications as well. Unlike applications designed for laptop and desktop computers, which are produced by identifiable parties, there are millions of applications for smartphones and tablets that have been designed with minimal attention to security or data protection.
Furthermore, these downloaded applications could have access to personal information on the mobile device, which makes them potential conduits for attacks. Furthermore, mobile devices have limited options for running protection software. Network access for remote communication can be through either a wireline or a wireless infrastructure.
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The physical medium for wireline access can be copper cables, coaxial cables, and optical fibers. The bit rates depend on the access technology. Today, it is used to transmit the so-called triple play services voice, data, high-definition television to subscribers on the access side. Gigabit passive optical networks GPONs carry all service types in addition to analog telephony.
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The deployment configuration depends on the reach of the optical fiber. The so-called G. Several protocols are available for wireless access.
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Newer generations of technologies have increased the rates, as shown in Table 1. These operate respectively at the various frequencies and theoretical bit rates maximum throughputs. Finally, to connect islands together, such as Indonesia, satellites are the only economical way to establish reliable communication Bland, Barcodes provide a simple and inexpensive way to encode textual information about items or objects in a form that machines can read, validate, retrieve, and process.
The set of encoding rules is called barcode symbology. Barcodes can be read with smartphones equipped with a digital camera. A software client installed on the smartphone controls the digital camera to scan and interpret the coded information, allowing mobile users to connect to the web with a simple point and click of their phones, thereby making mobile surfing easier.
Linear barcodes consist of encoded numbers and letters alphanumeric ASCII characters as a sequence of parallel black and white lines of different widths. The specifications for 1D barcodes define the encoding of the message, the size of quiet zones before and after the barcode, and the start and stop patterns.
What are the most important e-commerce security protocols?
GTIN is a linear or 1D barcode that follows a specific standard. The digit UPC code comprises two 6-digit fields: the first reserved for a manufacturer identification number, while the second contains the item number. The whole UPC symbol adds to the UPC barcode its human-readable representation in the form of digits printed below the code.
In a similar fashion, the EAN barcodes are used worldwide to tag products sold at retail points with International Article Numbers as defined by the GS1 organization. The symbol elements in 2D barcodes consist of dark and light squares.
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The finder pattern is used to detect and locate the 2D barcode symbol and to compute the characteristics of a symbol e. With error detection and correction, the original data can be retrieved when the symbol is partially damaged, provided that the finder pattern is not damaged. There are two categories of 2D barcodes: stacked codes and matrix codes.
Stacked codes consist of a series of rows one on top of the other, with each row represented as a 1D barcode. Data representation in matrix codes consists of a matrix of black and white squares or cells. Most stacked 2D barcodes require specialized laser scanning devices raster scanners capable of reading in two dimensions simultaneously.
Charge coupled device CCD imagers can read these codes, which is why camera phones can be used for the scanning and decoding of matrix codes. Matrix codes have larger storage capacity than stacked codes. Some of the 2D barcodes that can be read from mobile phones are presented next. Its main characteristic is its small symbol size to fit on tiny drug packages. The finder pattern defines the physical size of the symbol, its orientation and distortion, and its cell structure.
Furthermore, the level of error correction with the Reed—Solomon algorithm is automatically determined in accordance with the symbol size Kato et al. Department of Defense. PDF stands for Portable Data File while signifies that a codeword consists of up to 17 units, each formed by a sequence of 4 bars and 4 spaces of varying widths.
It comprises 3 to 90 rows, each row consisting of piling up to 30 codewords on top of one another. A codeword represents 1 of possible patterns from 1 of 3 different sets of symbols, patterns, or clusters used alternatively on every third row Kato et al. Error correction is based on the Reed—Solomon algorithm.
Postal Service. MaxiCode was developed by UPS in for the highspeed sorting and tracking of units.
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It has a fixed size and a limited data capacity. One of its characteristic features is a circular finder pattern made up of three concentric rings. Model 1 QR Code is the original version of the specification. Versions differ by the amount of data that can be stored and by the size of the 2D barcode. The resolution of the camera phone puts a practical limit on the versions that mobile applications can use.
grelsaliguar.ml As shown in Figure 1. During scanning, these pattern blocks are the first to be detected. In this code, the finder pattern consists of a block located at one corner, as shown in Figure 1.