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Approves New Tuberculosis Drug".

New York Times. Categories : Tuberculosis Global health Health-related timelines Medicine timelines. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Languages Add links. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Typical skeletal abnormalities of tuberculosis, including characteristic Pott's deformities , are found in Egyptian mummies and are depicted in early Egyptian art. Tuberculosis is also noted in the Biblical books of Deuteronomy and Leviticus. Written texts describe tuberculosis in India as early as years ago and in China years ago.

Tuberculosis is well known in classical Greece , where it is called phthisis.

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The incidence of tuberculosis grows progressively in these times, displacing leprosy , peaking between the 18th and 19th century as field workers move to the cities looking for work. Description of tuberculosis is developed in medical literature. Toward s sanatoria start to open for treating patients, with often successful outcomes.

Understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis begins with the works of Laennec , Villemin and the identification of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent by Robert Koch. BCG vaccine against tuberculosis is developed. Several international conferences are held, focusing on the fundamental, biological, clinical and social aspects of tuberculosis. The isolation of streptomycin is generally considered the beginning of the modern era of tuberculosis.

The revolution continues with the development of isoniazid , the first oral mycobactericidal drug. The advent of rifampin in the s hastens recovery times, and significantly reduces the number of tuberculosis cases in the following years. Tuberculosis drug-resistant strains appear, provoking a rise in incidence in countries like Britain. Also, the association with AIDS has contributed to the rise of tuberculosis in some sectors. Today, tuberculosis continues to be a top infectious disease killer worldwide. English physician Richard Morton first states that tubercles are always present in the tuberculosis disease of the lungs.

Austrian physician Leopold Auenbrugger develops a percussion method for diagnosing tuberculosis. Scottish physician Robert Whytt gives the first clinical description of tuberculous meningitis. English surgeon Percivall Pott first describes the arthritic tuberculosis of the spine today known as Pott disease. French physician Gaspard Laurent Bayle publishes his article Recherches sur la Pthisie Pulmonaire , in which he divides phthisis into six types: tubercular phthisis, glandular phthisis, ulcerous phthisis, phthisis with melanosis, calculous phthisis, and cancerous phthisis, basing his findings on more than autopsies.

The stethoscope marks a major step in the redefinition of disease from being a bundle of symptoms, to the current sense of a disease as a problem with an anatomical system even if there are no noticeable symptoms. The work of Laennec is considered to have clearly elucidated the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and unified the concept of the disease, whether pulmonary or extrapulmonary.

Hermann Brehmer establishes the first German sanatorium for the systematic open-air treatment of tuberculosis, with treatment including adjusting lifestyle at high altitude, abundant diet with some alcohol, and exercise in the open air under strict medical supervision. The results are eventually regarded as highly successful, surpassing any previous treatment.


Strehlen , Prussia. French physician Jean Antoine Villemin demonstrates of the transmissibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. German physician Robert Koch , a founder of modern bacteriology , identifies the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent that causes tuberculosis. Some years later, Koch develops what today is known as Koch's postulates , which he applies to describe the etiology of cholera and tuberculosis.

Koch is also attributed for having created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology , and making key discoveries in public health.

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Koch receives the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in Hungarian physiologist Franz Tangl publishes what later became known as Baumgarten-Tangl law , stating that the location where the bacteria intrudes is the one where the inflammation can be observed first. American entrepreneur Henry Phipps, Jr. Philadelphia , US.

French physician Charles Mantoux introduces his eponymous Mantoux test as a serological skin test to determine whether a person is infected with tuberculosis. French physician Charles Mantoux , perfects test for diagnosis of tuberculosis contact latent tuberculosis. American philanthropist Nathan Straus opens the first preventorium for patients infected with tuberculosis. It is still the only vaccine available against tuberculosis. After four to six weeks a large number of the infants develop tuberculosis. It is used for culture of Mycobacterium species, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis review - animation and narration by Dr. Cal Shipley, M.D.

Brazilian physician Manuel de Abreu develops chest photofluorography , a technique for mass screening for tuberculosis. Albert Schatz, Elizabeth Bugie , and Selman Waksman at Rutgers University isolate streptomycin , the first antibiotic and first bacterial agent effective against tuberculosis.

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  • New Jersey , US. The first randomized trial of streptomycin against pulmonary tuberculosis is carried out. Researchers at Britain's Medical Research Council demonstrate that combined treatment with streptomycin and 4-aminosalicylic acid is superior to either drug alone. Mass tuberculosis immunization is under way with the BCG vaccine. This vaccine is recommended to be given intradermally, immediately after birth. This vaccine is mandatory to attend school in France between and , introduced in Brazil in , and to the Philippines in Isoniazid is first used in the treatment of tuberculosis.

    The amino acid derivative cycloserine is first isolated. Lack of information was attributed to insufficient policy information dissemination associated with lack of in-service training and reporting mechanisms after workshops. Shortage of treatment was also indicated as a deterrent to effective policy implementation. The conclusion was reached, based on the findings of the research, that unless there was ongoing monitoring and evaluation of tuberculosis policies at local clinic level, including hospital level, tuberculosis policies would continue to be talked about at a broader global level without the focus on implementation at grassroots level.

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    Strategies should be put in place to encourage professional nurses' ownership of policies. Philadelphia: Saunders. St Louis, Philadelphia: Saunders. Health Policy. Volume 62, Issue 2, November Available on Line 14 February Accessed 3 February Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. South Africa. Accessed 16 February Curationis 30 1 Available onlinePLos Mcdicine?

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    Journal of Community Health Nursing. London: Sage Publications. Accessed 6 February Great Britain: Stanley Thomas Publishers. American Review of Respiratory Disease. London: Sage Publishers. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co. WHO report on the TB epidemic.